E N F O S T E R , BM, RPT
P I A
N O T U N I N G S E R V I C E S
w w w . K e n F
o s t e
r . c o m
computer technology available
checks done by ear
imperfections in all pianos, including variations in string
cabinet, iron plate, bridges, ribs, soundboard, pinblock, etc., no two
pianos are exactly alike. Every string produces its own unique
a string is hit and
begins to vibrate, what you see is massive movement throughout the
of the string. In reality however, the string has been
divided into several sections. These sub-divisions are referred
a wire or sound waves
vibrate, it subdivides into simultaneously vibrating fractions referred
to as Partials, or Overtones.
vibration is called
the Fundamental, or 1st
Partial. This is the actual sound
you initially perceive. For example, if the string is tuned to a
"C", you will hear a "C". In actuality, you are really hearing
pitches at once. These are the divisions that are occurring
the string. The following diagram shows how this division
of a vibrating
string generating individual audible pitches,
Partials or Overtones.
(listen ~ click
(listen ~ mp3)
|The first division
then, is much like taking your finger and placing it exactly half way
the middle of the string. Because the string is now half the
you will hear a pitch exactly one octave higher (from the initial "C"
the next higher "C"). This is natures 1st
Overtone, or 2nd
If you had a
the strings would subdivide into these various harmonics making
tuning a breeze. Unfortunately, this is never the case. The
deviations from the perfect divisions is termed inharmonicity.
new pianos of the same make and model were measured for the amount of
in the temperament notes (F below middle C to the F above) using just
fourth partial. These variations would cause some significant
in tuning using a "one size fits all" approach.
inharmonicity measurements of just "middle C" between different
and sizes of pianos.
use of advanced
computer technology every string is measured for inharmonicity.
variations, or deviations from the theoretical partials are then
and measured against other notes and partials. The computer then
simultaneously tunes up to 8 partials at once, continually
each partials inharmonicity, relative strength and weakness.
are then calculated based on the measured inharmonicity, stretch
(Style), temperament, and on the targets of other previously calculated
computer system that
has been helping me achieve these incredible results, calculates nearly
2,000 measurements, individualizing each pianos temperament with
aural tuner (including myself), and
less sophisticated electronic tuning machines only listen for one
at a time. This requires some guess work on trying to find the
"stretch" (variations from the theoretical) for a piano.
optimize tunings are achieved and refined each time your piano is
Partly because of the tremendous amount of information that is kept on
file for your piano. Future tunings are even better, because of
stored memory of each strings partials.
continual aural checks
done by ear and the accuracy of the most advanced dedicated computer
I am able to produce exceptionally smooth rising beat rates in Equal
Irregularities are easily compensated without guesswork.
and other difficult
scales can be tuned with the best possible regularity. Concert
are done with the type of precision that professional pianists expect
Note: Sometimes I am asked if I
tune by ear or with a machine.. the answer is yes to both questions.
I know the very best and latest techniques and systems for
ear, I have studied and perfected the only system that is taught and
endorsed by the Guild with the man who has been credited with
co-writing and perfecting this system.
done right, tuning is a combination of accuracy and musicality.
Knowing the skills to tune by ear to within 1 cent (one one-hundreth of a half step) helps guarantee a
beautifully sounding piano.
was also necessary in order to pass the rigorous examinations of the
Piano Technicians Guild and be granted the credential of Registered Piano Technician (RPT).