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This is not a comprehensive list, but should give you an idea what I do when I regulate. 

There is also the option of just improving one area, kind of a band-aide approach.  From my experience, when I do a complete regulation, there is a considerable amount of time in prep work, repairs and reconditioning.  This lays the foundation for a successful full regulation, this is why it can take 15 - 20+ hours.  My process is complete and

*Once I have had a chance to evaluate your piano, I will give you a quote to consider.  Typically deeply discounted.  So even if it takes 10 or 20+ hours, your price will be known.

As a pianist, this will give you:

Absolute Evenness

Perfect Alignment
Dynamic Range
Speed of Repetition

Overall, making your piano a joy to play. It will likely be better than when the piano was brand new. The procedures, methods and tools I employ have improved immensely over the last few years.


Action, Action Cavity, Soundboard (beneath strings)
Tuning Pin area, Piano Frame, Piano Plate
Deep Cleaning Black Keys of Grime, Polishing
Deep Cleaning/Bead Blasting Action Frame & Keys

Repairs & Refurbishing

Pinning and Regulating Wippen Flanges (Worst Ones)
Pinning and Regulating Hammer Flanges (All- 5 to 6 grams resistance)
Pinning and Regulating Repetition Lever Flanges
Sizing Balance Rail and Front Rail Mortises (Inside the Key)
Bushing/Treating Balance Rail and Front Rail Bushings
Cleaning and Polishing Front & Balance Rail Key Pins
Repairing Ivory Keys
Polishing Capstans
Repairing/Refurbishing Felt Regulating Buttons, Hammer Rest Rail, Key End Damper Felt, Knuckles, Front and Balance Rail Felt Bushings, Catchers, Drop Screw Felt and Spoon Regulating Button Felt
Reshaping Hammers, Squaring and Spacing
Traveling Hammer Shanks and Wippens
Whiting & Polishing White Keys
Tightened all screws (Hammer Rail, Wippen Rail, Damper Rail, etc.)


Sand, Sweep & Lube Key-frame (rails & sides)
Polished/Lube Balance Rail Pins (88)
Polished/Lube Front Rail Pins (88)
Tested and Lube (or repinned) all Hammer Flange center pins
Micro-fine Teflon powder to knuckles (88)
Eased all Balance and Front Key bushings (applied VS Profelt)


Squared & Spaced Keys
Traveled Hammers, shimmed offending ones
Traveled Wippins, shimmed offending ones
Checked overall alignment:
Repetition Lever to Jack, Wippen to Capstan, Jack to Knuckle
Adjusted Back-checks to Hammer Tail
Leveled White & Black Keys
Bedded the Key-frame
Sostenuto Glide Bolts (when present)


Adjusted all 88 repetition springs
Set let-off buttons (3mm to 1.5mm)
Set Hammer Blow distance (47-49 mm)
Fine adjusted hammer line so after-touch is at .048 inch

Regulated Jacks to Knuckle Core
Regulated drop screws
Regulated back checks (5/8” or better)
Adjusted key dip for uniform after-touch (10 mm)
Regulated repetition lever flanges
Regulated damper mechanism from key lift and pedal lift
Adjusted damper stop rail
Adjusted key stop rail
Adjusted hammer rest rail


Level all strings
Seat strings to the bridges
Seat front and rear duplex segments
Mate and align hammers to strings
Voice all 88 hammers for
Dynamic Range
Noise in Capo section
Sustain evenness
Attack evenness (eliminated any metallic sound)
Evenness in sixteenth note groupings
Balance in each section (chord balance)
Shift position voicing

Fine Tune (A-440 Hz)
Pitch Raise & Fine Tuning

All Rights Reserved by K. Wayne Land 1998
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